A genetic screen previously identified the N-terminal 91 amino acids of the eukaryotic initiation factor 3 subunit f (N91-eIF3f) as a potent inhibitor of HIV-1 replication. Overexpression of N91-eIF3f or full-length eIF3f reduced the level of HIV-1 mRNAs in the infected cell. Here we show that N91-eIF3f and eIF3f act by specifically blocking the 3' end processing of the HIV-1 pre-mRNA both in vivo and in vitro. Furthermore, the results suggest that eIF3f mediates this restriction of HIV-1 expression through the previously unsuspected involvement of a set of factors that includes eIF3f, the SR protein 9G8, and the cyclin-dependent kinase 11 (CDK11). eIF3f affects HIV-1 3' end processing by modulating the sequence-specific recognition of the HIV-1 pre-mRNA by 9G8.