Proceeding from our observation that LPS-unresponsive mice of the strain C57BL/10ScCr mice fail to express the Tlr4 gene [Poltorak A, He X. Smirnova I et al. Defective LPS signaling in C3H/HeJ and C57BL/10ScCr mice: mutations in Tlr4 gene. Science 1998; 282: 2085], we have defined the exact limits of a deletion encompassing Tlr4 in the C57BL/10ScCr genome. The deletion removes 74723 bp of DNA, with reference to the control strain 129/J (from which the complete sequence of the Tlr4 locus was obtained). There is no inserted element, and no re-arrangement of the chromosome (e.g. inversion or translocation) in the immediate region of Tlr4; the deletion removes only one recognizable gene. Hence, other immunological anomalies that have been identified in C57BL/10ScCr mice (a non-healing phenotype in Leishmania inoculation and failure to produce interferon-gamma in response to numerous microbial infections) must be ascribed to one of two causes. Mutation(s) at other loci may be responsible for these defects. Alternatively, Tlr4 locus deletion may have phenotypic consequences that exceed the well known blockade of LPS signal transduction.