At different times of exposure, interferon (IFN) enhanced and suppressed pokeweed mitogen- (PWM) induced IgG synthesis by human peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL). Pretreatment of PBL and IFN frequently increased antibody production by more than 100% when compared with that by untreated PBL. Results of experiments in which PBL were separated into T and B subpopulations indicated that IFN preparations acted directly on B cells. Thus, mixtures of IFN-treated B cells and untreated T cells from 5 of 7 persons tested produced 81% to 500% more IgG than untreated, matched control cells. However, IFN-treated monocytes mixed with untreated B and T cells or IFN-treated T cells mixed with untreated B cells failed to enhance IgG production significantly in similar assays. In contrast to the pretreatment protocol, when IFN was present in the incubation mixture throughout the PWM assay, IgG production decreased. Sephadex chromatography of the IFN and tests of the resulting fractions indicated that the IgG production-enhancing activity was located in the fraction carrying the antiviral activity.