Alkaline phosphatase (APase) is induced as a culture enters stationary phase because of limiting phosphate. The results presented here show that expression of APase is regulated both negatively and positively. PhoP, a homolog of a family of bacterial transcription factors, and PhoR, a homolog of bacterial histidine protein kinases, are required for induction of APases when phosphate becomes limiting. The induction period lasts 2 to 3 h, after which the rate of APase accumulation is decreased. Mutant strains defective in the Spo0A transcription factor failed to decrease APase production. The consequent hyperinduction of APase in a spo0A strain was dependent on phoP and phoR. spo0B and spo0F strains also overexpressed APase, suggesting that phosphorylated Spo0A is required for repression of APase. An abrB mutant allele in the presence of the mutant spo0A allele in these strains did not significantly change the APase hyperinduction phenotype, demonstrating that Spo0A repression of abrB expression is not the mechanism by which Spo0A-P regulates APase expression. Our previous report that spo0A mutants do not express APases is in conflict with the present data. We show here that the previously used mutants and a number of commonly used spo0 strains, all of which have an APase deficiency phenotype, contain a previously unrecognized mutation in phoR.