Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling was analyzed in mammalian cells conditionally defective for receptor-mediated endocytosis. EGF-dependent cell proliferation was enhanced in endocytosis-defective cells. However, early EGF-dependent signaling events were not uniformly up-regulated. A subset of signal transducers required the normal endocytic trafficking of EGFR for full activation. Thus, endocytic trafficking of activated EGFR plays a critical role not only in attenuating EGFR signaling but also in establishing and controlling specific signaling pathways.