Many studies have demonstrated that intracellular proteins, which are involved in carcinogenesis, can provoke autoantibody responses. Therefore, autoantibodies can be used clinically for cancer detection and for proteomic analysis in identification of tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) that are potentially involved in malignant transformation. Liver cancer, especially hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), is one of the most common tumors in the world. The majority of people with HCC will die within 1 year of its detection. This high case fatality rate can partially be attributed to a lack of diagnostic methods that allow early detection. In the present study, sera from 20 patients with HCC, 30 patients with chronic hepatitis (CH), and 30 patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) as well as sera from 10 normal individuals were used in a proteomic approach to identify HCC-related TAAs. Thirty-four immunoreactive protein spots were excised from the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE), digested with trypsin, and subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Of 34 immunoreactive protein spots, 28 were identified. Seventeen of them were not only reactive with serum antibodies in HCC but also with antibodies in pre-HCC conditions, and 11 were only reactive with serum antibodies in HCC but not with antibodies in pre-HCC conditions. In the subsequent analysis, two representative proteins, HSP60 and HSP70, were selected as examples for the validation purpose. The results from immunoassay were consistent with the data from proteomic analysis, supporting our hypothesis that proteins identified with autoantibodies that have been present in precancer conditions may be not appropriate to use as TAA markers in cancer detection.