An antibody phage display library was constructed from RNA extracted from lymph node cells of a simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected long-term-nonprogressor macaque. Seven gp120-reactive Fabs were obtained by selection of the library against SIV monomeric gp120. Although each of the Fabs was unique in sequence, there were two distinct groups based on epitope recognition, neutralizing activity in vitro, and molecular analysis. Group 1 Fabs did not neutralize SIV and bound to a linear epitope in the V3 loop of the SIV envelope. In contrast, two of the group 2 Fabs neutralized homologous, neutralization-sensitive SIVsm isolates with high efficiency but failed to neutralize heterologous SIVmac isolates. Based on competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays with mouse monoclonal antibodies of known specificity, these Fabs reacted with a conformational epitope that includes domains V3 and V4 of the SIV envelope. These neutralizing and nonneutralizing Fabs provide valuable standardized and renewable reagents for studying the role of antibody in preventing or modifying SIV infection in vivo.