SNP rs9939609 within the fat mass and obesity associated gene (FTO) is strongly associated with adult body mass index (BMI). However, influences of FTO on longitudinal BMI change from childhood to adulthood have not been examined. Knowledge is limited on FTO, modulating the association between birth weight and longitudinal change of BMI. This longitudinal study examined SNPs of FTO in 658 white subjects from childhood (3-17 years) to adulthood (18-45 years). No significant associations of FTO SNPs with either birth weight or longitudinal BMI over childhood were noted after multiple-test adjustment. However, three SNPs (rs9939609, rs17820875 and rs860713) with different inheritance patterns were identified to be associated with longitudinal BMI over adulthood after Bonferroni adjustment (P = 5.3 × 10(-5), 2.0 × 10(-4) and 0.001). In addition, interactions were discovered between birth weight and SNPs of rs17820875 (P = 0.001) and rs860713 (0.002). A negative association between birth weight and adult BMI were found in risk genotype AG of rs17820875 and GG of rs860713 in contrast to positive associations in other genotypes. These findings led to the conclusion that lower birth weight predisposes to higher adult BMI depending on FTO risk genotypes. Our studies underscore the importance of FTO influences on obesity and provide insights into the evolution of the long-term burden of obesity.