Extravascular procoagulant activity often accompanies cell-mediated immune responses and systemic administration of pharmacologic anticoagulants prevents cell-mediated delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions. These observations suggest a direct association between coagulation and cell-mediated immunity. The cytokine interleukin (IL)-4 potently suppresses cell-mediated immune responses, but its mechanism of action remains to be determined. Herein we demonstrate that the physiologic anticoagulant protein S is IL-4-inducible in primary T cells. Although protein S was known to inhibit the classic factor Va-dependent prothrombinase assembled by endothelial cells and platelets, we found that protein S also inhibits the factor Va-independent prothrombinase assembled by lymphoid cells. Thus, protein S-mediated down-regulation of lymphoid cell procoagulant activity may be one mechanism by which IL-4 antagonizes cell-mediated immunity.