Four patients with acute leukemia received transplants from HLA-mismatched, related donors. Marrow cells that had been depleted of T lymphocytes using a monoclonal anti-T-lymphocyte antibody and rabbit complement were used. In vitro studies showed that 80-97% of the mature T lymphocytes were removed using this procedure. Infusion of the treated marrow was accomplished without complications, and engraftment occurred in each case. Graft-versus-host disease occurred in 3 of the 4 patients. These results show that additional manipulations of the marrow will be required to allow complete T lymphocyte removal from the marrow before the feasibility of this approach in HLA-mismatched patients can be determined.