We have examined the seroprevalence of BDV in wild Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) in the peninsula (Chiba prefecture), Japan. Serum samples from macaques were examined by the ELISA, Western blot and immunofluorescence assays to detect the presence of serum antibodies that react specifically to BDV antigens. Among 49 investigated individuals, 6 (12.2%) showed positive reaction to BDV antigens. RT-PCR studies detected BDV sequences in brain tissue of one case among four seropositive cases examined. Sequence analysis revealed a high degree of genetic conservation between BDV sequences derived from Japanese macaques and those documented for other animal species. Nevertheless, phylogenetic analysis revealed unique differences between macaque and other species derived BDV sequences.