The plant virus cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) has recently been developed as a biomolecular platform to display heterologous peptide sequences. Such CPMV-peptide chimeras can be easily and inexpensively produced in large quantities from experimentally infected plants. This study utilized the CPMV chimera platform to create an antiviral against measles virus (MV) by displaying a peptide known to inhibit MV infection. This peptide sequence corresponds to a portion of the MV binding site on the human MV receptor CD46. The CPMV-CD46 chimera efficiently inhibited MV infection of HeLa cells in vitro, while wild-type CPMV did not. Furthermore, CPMV-CD46 protected mice from mortality induced by an intracranial challenge with MV. Our results indicate that the inhibitory CD46 peptide expressed on the surface of CPMV retains virus-binding activity and is capable of inhibiting viral entry both in vitro and in vivo. The CD46 peptide presented in the context of CPMV is also up to 100-fold more effective than the soluble CD46 peptide at inhibiting MV infection in vitro. To our knowledge, this study represents the first utilization of a plant virus chimera as an antiviral agent.