Crystals of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) that diffract X-rays to 3.1 A resolution were grown in a succinate-PEG solution buffered at pH 3.3. The crystals are in space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with unit cell dimensions of a = 381.26 A, b = 381.26 A, and c = 408.59 A. Four particles occupy the unit cell, placing a single virion in the crystallographic asymmetric unit. Diffraction intensities measured from 196 films collected at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source accounted for 55% of the theoretically possible data to 3.2 A. Unit cell dimensions and rotation function analyses of the X-ray data revealed that the particles were organized in a pseudo-tetragonal relationship with the pseudo-fourfold axis along the crystal c axis. Analysis of electron micrographs of two-dimensional crystals of CCMV revealed a remarkable similarity between these and planes of particles perpendicular to the crystallographic c axis in the three-dimensional crystal.