The AtxA virulence regulator of Bacillus anthracis is required for toxin and capsule gene expression. AtxA is a phosphotransferase system regulatory domain-containing protein whose activity is regulated by phosphorylation/dephosphorylation of conserved histidine residues. Here we report that transcription of the atxA gene occurs from two independent promoters, P1 (previously described by Dai et al. [Z. Dai, J. C. Sirard, M. Mock, and T. M. Koehler, Mol. Microbiol. 16:1171-1181, 1995]) and P2, whose transcription start sites are separated by 650 bp. Both promoters have -10 and -35 consensus sequences compatible with recognition by sigma(A)-containing RNA polymerase, and neither promoter depends on the sporulation sigma factor SigH. The dual promoter activity and the extended untranslated mRNA suggest that as-yet-unknown regulatory mechanisms may act on this region to influence the level of AtxA in the cell.