The CB1 cannabinoid receptor has been shown to couple with pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive Gi/o proteins and inhibit adenylyl cyclase. However, in certain conditions, CB1 mediates adenylyl cyclase activation, possibly through Gs-type G proteins. In rat B103 neuroblastoma cells in which CBI gene was endogenously expressed, anandamide inhibited forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation via PTX-sensitive pathways. When CB1 was heterologously over-expressed using a retroviral transfer, high concentrations of anandamide increased forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, and this effect was more prominent when cells were pretreated with PTX. In CB1-over-expressing B103 cells, anandamide induced cell rounding via a PTX-insensitive/Rho kinase inhibitor-sensitive pathway. These results suggest that the CB1 receptor could couple with G proteins that activate Rho (possibly G12/13) as well as Gi/o and Gs.