The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria poses a serious threat to human health. Bacteria often acquire resistance from a mutation of chromosomal genes during therapy. We have recently shown that the evolution of resistance to ciprofloxacin in vivo and in vitro requires the induction of a mutation that is mediated by the cleavage of the SOS repressor LexA and the associated derepression of three specialized DNA polymerases (polymerase II [Pol II], Pol IV, and Pol V). These results led us to suggest that it may be possible to design drugs to inhibit these proteins and that such drugs might be coadministered with antibiotics to prevent mutation and the evolution of resistance. For the approach to be feasible, there must not be any mechanisms through which bacteria can induce mutations and acquire antibiotic resistance that are independent of LexA and its repressed polymerases. Perhaps the most commonly cited mechanism to elevate bacterial mutation rates is the inactivation of methyl-directed mismatch repair (MMR). However, it is unclear whether this represents a LexA-independent mechanism or if the mutations that arise in MMR-deficient hypermutator strains are also dependent on LexA cleavage and polymerase derepression. In this work, we show that LexA cleavage and polymerase derepression are required for the evolution of clinically significant resistance in MMR-defective Escherichia coli. Thus, drugs that inhibit the proteins responsible for induced mutations are expected to efficiently prevent the evolution of resistance, even in MMR-deficient hypermutator strains.