In the present study we evaluated the relationships between the P300 event-related potential and event-related desynchronization (ERD) of electroencephalographic alpha activity by simultaneously analyzing P300 as well as 7-10- and 10-14-Hz alpha ERD responses from auditory passive and active oddball conditions. We compared the effects of task (target vs. nontarget) and electrode (Fz, Cz, Pz) on P300 and ERD, and correlated P300 amplitude/latency with ERD maximal amplitude/latency across individuals. The major findings were that P300 as well as slow and fast alpha ERD manifested similar task and electrode effects. P300 preceded ERD and predicted individual variance of both slow and fast alpha ERD. The relationships of P300 with alpha ERD were different for the slow and fast alpha frequencies. These findings indicate that P300 and ERD are related such that slow and fast alpha ERDs are specifically guided or modified by the internal event(s) indexed by P300.