Four basic proteins that increase vascular permeability have been isolated in purified form from rabbit neutrophilic granules. These proteins are termed band 1, 2, 3, and 4 protein according to their electrophoretic migration in acrylamide gel. Molecular weights of band 1 and 2 protein derived from amino acid composition were 4800 and 5300, respectively. These values are in good agreement with those obtained for these proteins by gel diffusion techniques. The molecular weight of band 3 protein was also in the range of 5000 by the latter technique. The molecular weight of band 4 protein determined by ultracentrifugal analysis and amino acid composition was 12,000. Although all four proteins had the capacity to induce immediate increase in vascular permeability, only band 2 protein was found to release histamine from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells. Furthermore, it has been shown that the permeability-inducing activity of band 2 protein can be inhibited by pretreating rabbits with antihistamine. Band 2 protein did not release histamine from rabbit platelets and depletion of rabbit platelets from the circulation had no influence on the permeability-inducing activity of this protein. Band 1, 3, and 4 proteins did not release histamine from isolated rat peritoneal mast cells and their capacity to increase vascular permeability remained unaffected by treatment of rabbits with antihistamine. These investigations suggest that the histamine-releasing activity of band 2 protein is a specific phenomenon and is associated with particular amino acid grouping or spacial configuration of the molecules. By the same token, the increase in vascular permeability induced by the nonhistamine-releasing band 1, 3, and 4 proteins represents a specific phenomenon (or phenomena) not particularly related to the over-all charge of these molecules.