During inflammation, chemokines are conductors of lymphocyte trafficking. The chemokine CXCL10 is expressed early after virus infection. In a virus-induced mouse model for type 1 diabetes, CXCL10 blockade abrogated disease by interfering with trafficking of autoaggressive lymphocytes to the pancreas. We have generated transgenic rat insulin promotor (RIP)-CXCL10 mice expressing CXCL10 in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans to evaluate how bystander inflammation influences autoimmunity. RIP-CXCL10 mice have islet infiltrations by mononuclear cells and limited impairment of beta cell function, but not spontaneous diabetes. RIP-CXCL10 mice crossed to RIP-nucleoprotein (NP) mice expressing the NP of the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus in the beta cells had massively accelerated type 1 diabetes after lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infection. Mechanistically, we found a drastic increase in NP-specific, autoaggressive CD8 T cells in the pancreas after infection. In situ staining with H-2D(b)(NP(396)) tetramers revealed islet infiltration by NP-specific CD8 T cells in RIP-NP-CXCL10 mice early after infection. Our results indicate that CXCL10 expression accelerates the autoimmune process by enhancing the migration of Ag-specific lymphocytes to their target site.