Integrins comprise a large family of cell adhesion receptors that mediate diverse biological events through cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. Recent studies have shown that several integrins are localized to synapses with suggested roles in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. We generated a postnatal forebrain and excitatory neuron-specific knock-out of beta1-integrin in the mouse. Electrophysiological studies demonstrated that these mutants have impaired synaptic transmission through AMPA receptors and diminished NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation. Despite the impairment in hippocampal synaptic transmission, the mutants displayed normal hippocampal-dependent spatial and contextual memory but were impaired in a hippocampal-dependent, nonmatching-to-place working memory task. These phenotypes parallel those observed in animals carrying knock-outs of the GluR1 (glutamate receptor subunit 1) subunit of the AMPA receptor. These observations suggest a new function of beta1-integrins as regulators of synaptic glutamate receptor function and working memory.