Proper protein folding is key to producing recombinant proteins for structure determination. We have examined the effect of misfolded recombinant protein on gene expression in Escherichia coli. Comparison of expression patterns indicates a unique set of genes responding to translational misfolding. The response is in part analogous to heat shock and suggests a translational component to the regulation. We have further utilized the expression information to generate reporters responsive to protein misfolding. These reporters were used to identify properly folded recombinant proteins and to create soluble domains of insoluble proteins for structural studies.