Gene therapies for recessive genetic diseases may provoke unwanted immune responses against the introduced gene product because patients, especially those with null mutation of a certain protein, have no tolerance for the protein of interest. This study used desmoglein 3 knockout (Dsg3-/-) mice as a disease model for a genetic defect in DSG3, to investigate whether nonviral gene therapy induces an immune response against Dsg3 and whether the reaction against Dsg3 can be prevented. When mouse Dsg3 cDNA was injected in the skin of Dsg3-/- mice, 50% of treated Dsg3-/- mice developed anti-Dsg3 IgG, which can bind native Dsg3 in vivo. To prevent this response, we used an anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody, MR1, which blocks the costimulatory interaction between CD40 and CD40L. To evaluate the effect of MR1, we grafted Dsg3+/+skin on Dsg3-/- mice, to mimic stable gene transfer of Dsg3. After skin grafting, all the recipient Dsg3-/- mice were treated with either MR1 (n=8) or control hamster IgG (n=8). All of the control IgG-treated mice developed circulating anti-Dsg3 IgG about 2 wk after grafting, and IgG deposition was observed on the surfaces of keratinocytes in the grafted Dsg3+/+skin. Such anti-Dsg3 IgG production was significantly prevented, however, when the recipient mice were treated with MR1. These findings suggested that gene therapies for recessive diseases may provoke an immune response against the transgene product, and that the CD40-CD40L interaction might be a reasonable target for effective prevention of such undesirable immune responses, leading, in turn, to a successful gene therapy.