Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), mainly Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, are dynamic, chronic inflammatory conditions that are associated with an increased colon cancer risk. Inflammatory cell apoptosis is a key mechanism for regulating IBD. Peptidylarginine deiminases (PADs) catalyze the posttranslational conversion of peptidylarginine to peptidylcitrulline in a calcium-dependent, irreversible reaction and mediate the effects of proinflammatory cytokines. Because PAD levels are elevated in mouse and human colitis, we hypothesized that a novel small-molecule inhibitor of the PADs, i.e., chloramidine (Cl-amidine), could suppress colitis in a dextran sulfate sodium mouse model. Results are consistent with this hypothesis, as demonstrated by the finding that Cl-amidine treatment, both prophylactic and after the onset of disease, reduced the clinical signs and symptoms of colitis, without any indication of toxic side effects. Interestingly, Cl-amidine drives apoptosis of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo, providing a mechanism by which Cl-amidine suppresses colitis. In total, these data help validate the PADs as therapeutic targets for the treatment of IBD and further suggest Cl-amidine as a candidate therapy for this disease.