Analysis of the composition of cell surface-associated glycoproteins of D. discoideum by lactoper-oxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, followed by isolation by Con A-Sepharose chromatography, revealed that the developmentally regulated cell surface expression of a certain glycoprotein (gp150) parallels the onset of mutual cellular cohesiveness (Geltosky, Siu and Lerner, 1976). We have purified gp150 and raised specific antibodies to it. Through utilization of the specific antibody and a fluorescence-activated cell sorter, the expression of gp150 on the cell surface has been studied. Starting from a low level in noncohesive (vegetative) cells, there is a rapid accumulation of gp150 on the surfaces of aggregating cells. A peak level of expression is achieved by 10 hr and maintained at least until the steps of terminal differentiation. Most significantly, monovalent Fa'b derived from anti-gp150, when added to aggregation-competent cells, blocks the cells' ability to reaggregate. Fab's derived from antisera with different specificities were ineffective inhibitors of cell aggregation. These results suggest that gp150 serves an intimate role in cell adhesion.