Complete proton assignments are reported for the 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrum of Escherichia coli thioredoxin in the oxidized (with active-site disulfide bridge) and reduced (with two sulfhydryl groups) states. The assignments were obtained by using an integrated assignment strategy in which spin systems were identified from a combination of relayed and multiple quantum NMR techniques prior to sequential assignment. Elements of secondary structure were identified in each protein from characteristic nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE), coupling constants, and slowly exchanging amide protons. In both oxidized and reduced thioredoxin, approximately 33% of the 108 amino acid residues participate in a beta-sheet containing four major strands (three antiparallel and one parallel). A further short beta-strand is connected in a parallel fashion at the N-terminal end of the sheet. Two of the antiparallel beta-strands are connected by a 7-residue beta-bulge loop. Three helical segments, also containing approximately 33% of the amino acid residues, are well-defined in both oxidized and reduced thioredoxin. The remaining third of the molecule apparently consists of reverse turns and loops with little defined secondary structure. The global folds of oxidized and reduced thioredoxin are shown to be essentially identical. Both NOE connectivities and chemical shift values for the two proteins are very similar, except in the immediate vicinity of the active site where significant variations in the chemical shift indicate subtle conformational changes. While the overall fold of oxidized thioredoxin is the same in solution and in the crystalline state, some small differences in local conformation are apparent.