We studied the susceptibility of four human lymphoblastoid cell lines (HCL) and of subpopulations of circulating peripheral human leukocytes to dengue-2 virus infection. HCL with B cell characteristics (Raji, Wil 2WT, 8866), B-type peripheral lymphocytes, and macrophages were productively infected by dengue-2 virus. In contrast, an HCL with T cell characteristics (MOLT-4), T type peripheral lymphocytes, and polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells did not become infected and replicate dengue-2 virus. PMN cells did not adsorb dengue-2 virus, suggesting lack of viral receptors. However, T-type cultured lymphoblasts and T-type peripheral lymphocytes adsorbed dengue-2 virus, suggesting that the block in viral replication involves some stage of infection occurring after adsorption. Permissiveness of B-type HCL to dengue-2 virus infection was dependent on the virus seed used but the virus titers obtained among the susceptible HCL varied. HCL infected persistently with dengue-2 virus have been established. Human peripheral lymphocytes inoculated after cultivation for 3 days in complete medium alone or complete medium supplemented with mitogens replicated dengue-2 virus. In contrast, unstimulated peripheral lymphocytes inoculated immediately after isolation adsorbed dengue-2 but did not support its replication. Mitogen-treated and untreated macrophages replicated dengue-2 virus equally well. The efficiency of dengue-2 virus replication by macrophages was higher than that of peripheral lymphocytes but lower than that of HCL.