Urinary tract infections are the most common infection in renal transplant patients and Escherichia coli (E. coli) is the most common clinical isolate. Although acute allograft injury (AAI) secondary to urinary tract infection (UTI) has been reported, the incidence of AAI associated with UTI, the virulence factors express by uropathic E. coli and whether virulence factors are associated with renal allograft outcome have not been described. We collected E. coli from our renal transplant patients with UTI, determined O:H serotypes, P and Dr fimbriae expression and the clinical presentation and allograft function during the UTI and post-UTI period. Pyelonephritis occurred in 40% of our patients, 82% of which had AAI (>20% increase in SCr). Sixty-two percent of E. coli isolates that expressed P fimbriae were associated with AAI, whereas only 29% that did not express P fimbriae had AAI (p = 0.03). The pattern of P fimbriae and O serotypes differed from reported isolates, as the P fimbriae PapG class II and the O25 serotype were the most common. Dr adhesin was expressed on 7 isolates, including 2 of 3 with urosepsis. We propose a unique pattern of uropathogenic serotypes and adherence factors contribute to acute allograft injury in renal transplant patients with UTI.