In this study the effect of local adenoviral-mediated delivery of inducible nitric oxide synthase on restenosis was evaluated in a porcine coronary stented model. Local gene transfer of recombinant adenoviral vectors that encode human inducible nitric oxide synthase (AdiNOS) was tested. Control vector (AdNull) lacked a recombinant transgene. Endoluminal delivery of 1.0 x 10(11) adenoviral particles was accomplished in 45 s using the Infiltrator catheter (Interventional Technologies, San Diego, CA). Coronary stents were deployed, oversized by a ratio of 1.2:1, in the treated segments immediately after gene transfer. Fourteen animals were sacrificed at day 28 to evaluate the effects of iNOS gene transfer on morphometric indices, and 4 animals were sacrificed at day 4 for detection of human iNOS expression by RT-PCR. iNOS mRNA was detected in six of eight iNOS-transferred arteries, whereas no expression of human iNOS was detected in the nontarget arteries. Morphometric analysis showed that iNOS transfer significantly reduced neointimal formation (3.41 +/- 1.12 mm(2) vs 2.14 +/- 0.68 mm(2), P < 0.05). We concluded that efficient intramural adenovirus-mediated iNOS transfer can be achieved by using Infiltrator catheters. iNOS gene transfer significantly reduces neointimal hyperplasia following stent injury.