The sequence of the human genome is providing researchers with the scaffold upon which genes are built. The definition of the boundaries of the genes themselves and of their complex architecture requires a mapping of the transcriptome to the genome. A methodology was developed for generating a detailed transcriptome map and for reconstituting transcripts by using the genome as a template. As a demonstration of the potential of this method, the structure of the human Toll-like receptor (TLR) genes was reevaluated. For all TLR genes for which a genomic sequence was available (i.e., all except TLR10), novel features of the gene structure were discovered. These features include multiple alternative polyadenylation sites, additional exons or splice variants, and overlaps with other genes. These findings have implications for the analysis of TLR gene expression and for the diversity of the proteins encoded by these genes.