An identified serotonergic neuron (C1) in the cerebral ganglion of Helisoma trivolvis sprouts following axotomy and rapidly (seven to eight days) regenerates to recover its regulation of feeding motor output from neurons of the buccal ganglia. The morphologies of normal and regenerated neurons C1 were compared. Intracellular injection of the fluorescent dye, Lucifer Yellow, into neuron C1 was compared with serotonin immunofluorescent staining of the cerebral and buccal ganglia. The two techniques revealed different and complimentary representations of the morphology of neuron C1. Lucifer Yellow provided optimal staining of the soma, major axon branches, and dendritic arborization. Immunocytochemical staining revealed terminal axon branches on distant targets and showed an extensive plexus of fine fibers in the sheaths of ganglia and nerve trunks. In addition to C1, serotonin-like immunoreactivity was localized in approximately 30 other neurons in each of the paired cerebral ganglia. Only cerebral neurons C1 had axons projecting to the buccal ganglia. No neuronal somata in the buccal ganglia displayed serotonin-like immunoreactivity. Observations of regenerating neurons C1 demonstrated: Actively growing neurites, both in situ and in cell culture, displayed serotonin-like immunoreactivity; severed distal axons of C1 retained serotonin-like immunoreactivity for up to 28 days; axotomized neurons C1 regenerated to restore functional control over the feeding motor program.