Large-scale biology emerged out of the efforts to sequence genomes of important organisms. Based on resources created by whole genome sequencing, large-scale analyses of messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression are now possible. With the availability of large amounts of genomic sequence information, a convenient method for the identification and analysis of proteins based on proteolytic digestion into peptides emerged. Processes to fragment peptides using collision-activated dissociation (CAD) in tandem mass spectrometers and computer algorithms to match the tandem mass spectra of peptides to sequences in databases enable rapid identification of amino acid sequences, and hence proteins, present in mixtures. The inherent complexity of the peptide mixtures has necessitated improvements in methodology for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis of peptides.