Directed release of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) into the cleft of the virological synapse that can form between infected and uninfected T cells, for example, in lymph nodes, is thought to contribute to the systemic spread of this virus. In contrast, influenza virus, which causes local infections, is shed into the airways of the respiratory tract from free surfaces of epithelial cells. We now demonstrate that such differential release of HIV-1 and influenza virus is paralleled, at the subcellular level, by viral assembly at different microsegments of the plasma membrane of HeLa cells. HIV-1, but not influenza virus, buds through microdomains containing the tetraspanins CD9 and CD63. Consequently, the anti-CD9 antibody K41, which redistributes its antigen and also other tetraspanins to cell-cell adhesion sites, interferes with HIV-1 but not with influenza virus release. Altogether, these data strongly suggest that the bimodal egress of these two pathogenic viruses, like their entry into target cells, is guided by specific sets of host cell proteins.