The C1q solid phase and Raji cell radioimmune assays were used to determine the frequency of detectable circulating immune complexes in patients with glomerulonephritis. In this study, 46% of 56 patients with glomerulonephritis had evidence of circulating immune complexes. More important, circulating immune complexes were associated with some, but not other, types of glomerulonephritis. Thus, immune complexes were detected in lupus glomerulonephritis (9/9 patients), rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (5/6 patients), and acute nephritis (5/6 patients), but not in IgA-IgG glomerulonephritis (0/7 patients), or membranous glomerulonephritis (0/8 patients). The Raji cell radioimmune assay and the C1q solid phase radioimmune assay showed concordance of 79% in the detection of circulating immune complexes. Serial determinations, in general, showed either persistence of a negative or positive result of conversion of positive to negative.