Cyanovirin-N (CV-N) is a cyanobacterial protein with potent neutralizing activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). CV-N has been shown to bind HIV type 1 (HIV-1) gp120 with high affinity; moreover, it blocks the envelope glycoprotein-mediated membrane fusion reaction associated with HIV-1 entry. However, the inhibitory mechanism(s) remains unclear. In this study, we show that CV-N blocked binding of gp120 to cell-associated CD4. Consistent with this, pretreatment of gp120 with CV-N inhibited soluble CD4 (sCD4)-dependent binding of gp120 to cell-associated CCR5. To investigate possible effects of CV-N at post-CD4 binding steps, we used an assay that measures sCD4 activation of the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein for fusion with CCR5-expressing cells. CV-N displayed equivalently potent inhibitory effects when added before or after sCD4 activation, suggesting that CV-N also has blocking action at the level of gp120 interaction with coreceptor. This effect was shown not to be due to CV-N-induced coreceptor down-modulation after the CD4 binding step. The multiple activities against the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein prompted us to examine other enveloped viruses. CV-N potently blocked infection by feline immunodeficiency virus, which utilizes the chemokine receptor CXCR4 as an entry receptor but is CD4 independent. CV-N also inhibited fusion and/or infection by human herpesvirus 6 and measles virus but not by vaccinia virus. Thus, CV-N has broad-spectrum antiviral activity, both for multiple steps in the HIV entry mechanism and for diverse enveloped viruses. This broad specificity has implications for potential clinical utility of CV-N.