The electrically evoked release of radioactivity from mouse vas deferens and rat hypothalamic slices preloaded with [3H]noradrenaline was measured. In addition the release of [3H]acetylcholine from longitudinal muscle strip of guinea-pig ileum was also measured. Neurochemical evidence has been obtained that neuropeptide Y (NPY), although it co-exists and is released with (-)-noradrenaline (NA), it behaves differently as far as its effect on presynaptic modulation of chemical neurotransmission is concerned. It exerts a frequency-dependent presynaptic inhibitory effect on noradrenaline release from mouse vas deferens but has no effect on the electrically evoked release of NA from rat hypothalamus. Unlike NA, NPY does not influence the release of [3H]acetylcholine from the longitudinal muscle strip of guinea-pig ileum and does not potentiate the presynaptic effect of NA. It seems very likely, that the inhibitory effect of NPY is mediated via receptors. Its action is concentration dependent. While exogenous noradrenaline inhibited the release of noradrenaline by 91%, the maximum inhibition reached with NPY was not higher than 60%, indicating that either the intrinsic activity of NPY is lower or much less axon terminals are equipped with NPY receptors. Peptide YY (PYY) also reduced the release of NA from mouse vas deferens.