Recently, a new inhibitor of fibrinolysis was described. This inhibitor downregulated fibrinolysis after it was activated by thrombin, and was therefore named TAFI (thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor; EC 18.104.22.168). TAFI turned out to be identical to previously described proteins, procarboxypeptidase U, procarboxypeptidase R, and plasma procarboxypeptidase B. In this overview, the protein will be referred to as TAFI. TAFI is a procarboxypeptidase and a member of the family of metallocarboxypeptidases. These enzymes are circulating in plasma and are present in several tissues such as pancreas. In this review, we will describe the properties of basic carboxypeptidases with the emphasis on the role of TAFI in coagulation and fibrinolysis. It cannot be ruled out, however, that TAFI has other, yet undefined, functions in biology.