The recognition that human tumors stimulate the production of autoantibodies against autologous cellular proteins called tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) has opened the door to the possibility that autoantibodies could be exploited as serological tools for the early diagnosis and management of cancer. Cancer-associated autoantibodies are often driven by intracellular proteins that are mutated, modified, or aberrantly expressed in tumor cells and hence are regarded as immunological reporters that could help uncover molecular events underlying tumorigenesis. Emerging evidence suggests that each type of cancer might trigger unique autoantibody signatures that reflect the nature of the malignant process in the affected organ. The advent of novel genomic, proteomic, and high throughput approaches has accelerated interest in the serum autoantibody repertoire in human cancers for the discovery of candidate TAAs. The use of individual anti-TAA autoantibodies as diagnostic or prognostic tools has been tempered by their low frequency and heterogeneity in most human cancers. However, TAA arrays comprising several antigens significantly increase this frequency and hold great promise for the early detection of cancer, monitoring cancer progression, guiding individualized therapeutic interventions, and identification of novel therapeutic targets. Our recent studies suggest that the implementation of TAA arrays in screening programs for the diagnosis of prostate cancer and other cancers should be preceded by the optimization of their sensitivity and specificity through the careful selection of the most favorable combinations of TAAs.