Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) can form pseudotypes with other enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, when the two viruses coinfect the same cell. Pseudotypes between HIV and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) have not been described. We observed unusually high levels of HIV-1 replication in SCID mice transplanted with human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hu-PBL-SCID mice) when the mice developed EBV-associated human B cell lymphoproliferative disease. If this enhancement of HIV-1 replication were due to pseudotype formation rather than direct infection of B lymphoblastic cells by HIV-1, the pseudotypes could pose a novel biohazard to laboratory workers. To assess whether HIV-1 and EBV can form such pseudotypes, we established and characterized CD4-positive B lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCL) that contained cells infected with both EBV and HIV-1. A high-titered virus pool from these LCL could induce HIV infection in the Burkitt's lymphoma (BL) line BJA-B, but not in the BL line Ramos. Infection of BJA-B was blocked by neutralizing antibody to HIV gp120 but not by neutralizing anti-EBV gp350. These experiments provide no evidence for pseudotype formation, suggesting a low risk for EBV:HIV pseudotypes in natural infection of humans or in human cells transplanted to SCID mice.