We report the development of direct catalytic, enantioselective, anti-selective Mannich-type reactions between unmodified ketones and alpha-imino esters under mild conditions. The reactions were performed using 5-10 mol % of (R)-3-pyrrolidinecarboxylic or (R)-beta-proline as catalyst in an environmentally benign solvent, 2-PrOH, at room temperature. The anti-Mannich products were obtained in good yields with high diastereo- and enantioselectivities (up to anti/syn >99:1, 99% ee). While (3R,5R)-5-methyl-3-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid is an excellent catalyst for the anti-Mannich-type reactions of aldehydes, it did not efficiently catalyze the corresponding Mannich-type reactions of ketones; (R)-3-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid did efficiently catalyze the Mannich-type reactions of ketones. (S)-Proline or (S)-2-pyrrolidinecarboxylic acid has been reported to catalyze the Mannich-type reactions of ketones to afford the syn-products. Thus, the position of the carboxylic acid group on the pyrrolidine ring directs the stereoselection of the catalyzed reaction, providing either syn- or anti-Mannich products.