Symptomatic patients with Type 1 protein C deficiency and venous thrombosis were analysed for defects in this gene using polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing of all nine exons. Ten different heterozygous point mutations were detected in 19 patients from eleven American families. Seven represent novel mutations. Two of these were found in the TATA box or near the transcription initiation site and presumably lead to loss of transcription, and seven missense mutations were found including G103R, P168L, R169W, I201T, P279L, T298M, and C384Y. These may lead to abnormal folding or thermodynamic instability of the protein C molecule, potentially causing abnormal secretion or rapid clearance from the circulation. Two other protein C mutations, a nonsense mutation at codon Trp-145 and a deletion inducing a frameshift at codon 364 resulting in premature termination at codon 378, likely lead to unstable products. The previously published R169W mutation resulted in a Type 1 deficiency. The data show that diverse molecular defects result in similar phenotypes and emphasize that a wide variety of mutations are responsible for Type 1 protein C deficiency in the American setting of a diverse population.