Transformation and transduction crosses involving recA1, recB2, and urv-1 mutations have shown that these mutations belong to three distinct unlinked genetic loci. The precise position of these loci on the Bacillus subtilis chromosome map has been determined. The behavior of recB2 strains in transformation studies suggested a dominance of recB2(+) function over recB2 and an early expression of this phenotype during transformation. Strains bearing two ultraviolet sensitivity markers possess a phenotype characteristic of the marker with the most adverse effect on recombination. The possibility that the effects of the two mutations are additive was also considered. Results are also presented which show that a phage-induced enzyme is not responsible for the high transducibility of recA1 strains.