The innate immune system senses pathogens largely through signals initiated by proteins known as 'Toll-like receptors' (TLRs), of which ten representatives are known to be encoded in the human genome. The understanding of the biochemical circuitry that maintains the innate capacity for immune recognition and response has loomed as a major hurdle in immunology. A total of five adapter proteins with cytoplasmic domain homology to the TLRs are known to exist in mammals. These proteins show preferential association with individual TLR family members, giving a particular character to the signals that distinct microorganisms initiate, and also initiate the adaptive immune response. The adaptive immune response is dependent upon upregulation of costimulatory molecules (UCM) such as CD80 and CD86. Forward genetic analysis has revealed that this upregulation depends upon an adapter encoded by a locus known as Lps2, and upon type I interferon receptor signaling.