Thermotaxis is important for animal survival, but the molecular identities of temperature sensors controlling this behavior have not been determined. We demonstrate dTRPA1, a heat-activated Transient Receptor Potential (TRP) family ion channel, is essential for thermotaxis in Drosophila. dTrpA1 knockdown eliminates avoidance of elevated temperatures along a thermal gradient. We observe dTRPA1 expression in cells without previously ascribed roles in thermosensation and implicate dTRPA1-expressing neurons in mediating thermotaxis. Our data suggest that thermotaxis relies upon neurons and molecules distinct from those required for high-temperature nociception. We propose dTRPA1 may control thermotaxis by sensing environmental temperature.