Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) isolated from Salmonella minnesota R595 or from Escherichia coli 0111:B4 induces hypotension in rhesus monkeys with normal complement levels. This hypotension is accompanied by decreased total peripheral resistance. The depletion of C3 and terminal complement components by prior intraperitoneal administration of the anticomplementary protein cobra factor did not alter the hemodynamic changes which occur following the rapid injection of 5 mg/kg of R595 LPS, the infusion of 500 microgram/kg of R595 LPS, or the injection of 500 microgram/kg of 0111:B4 LPS. We conclude that the LPS-induced hemodynamic changes in the subhuman primate are medicated by pathways which do not require the participation of C3. The kinetics and extent of the neutropenia and thrombocytopenia resulting from the injection of 0111:B4 or R595 LPS were not latered by prior depletion of greater than 95% of the plasma C3.