Hybridomas secreting monoclonal anti-vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) antibodies were constructed from spleen cells sensitized to VIP in vitro. The secreted antibodies were characterized by binding to VIP in indirect radioimmunoassays and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Two monoclonal antibodies, characterized for their binding activities with synthetic fragments of VIP, were found to bind different sites on the VIP molecule. These monoclonal antibodies may recognize tertiary structures of the VIP. A search was conducted for antigens recognized by the monoclonal antibodies in brain: brain proteins separated on polyacrylamide gels were electroblotted onto nitrocellulose filters and were reacted first with the mouse antibody and then with goat anti-mouse immunoglobulin coupled to horseradish peroxidase as a means of detection. The monoclonal antibodies were found to react with a protein of molecular weight 60,000, which was also recognized by polyclonal antibodies, although the latter reacted with a number of additional proteins. The relationship of the protein of molecular weight 60,000 to VIP is discussed.