Although coinfection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and Schistosoma mansoni is a frequent event in humans, little is known about the interactions between these two pathogens. S. mansoni infection induces T helper cell type 2 (Th2)-type cytokines in the liver of humans and mice. The intrahepatic induction of nitric oxide (NO) and Th1-type cytokines, such as interferon (IFN)-gamma and IFN-alpha/beta, inhibits HBV replication noncytopathically in the liver of transgenic mice. To examine whether S. mansoni infection and the accompanying induction of Th2-type cytokines could interfere with HBV replication in the liver, HBV transgenic mice were infected with S. mansoni. By 5 wk after infection, HBV replication disappeared concomitant with the intrahepatic induction of NO and Th1-type cytokines, and in the absence of Th2-type cytokines. By 6-8 wk after infection, HBV replication remained undetectable and this was associated with further induction of NO and Th1-type cytokines together with the appearance of Th2-type cytokines. The S. mansoni-dependent antiviral effect was partially blocked by genetically deleting IFN-gamma, although it was unaffected by deletion of IFN-alpha/beta. These results indicate that IFN-gamma (probably via NO) mediates most of this antiviral activity and that Th2-type cytokines do not counteract the antiviral effect of IFN-gamma. Similar events may suppress HBV replication during human S. mansoni infection.