Previous work (Dunham, W.R., Hagen, W.R., Fee, J.A., Sands, R.H., Dunbar, J.B., Humblet, C. (1991) An investigation of Chromatium vinosum high-potential iron-sulfur protein by EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopy; evidence for a freezing-induced dimerization in NaCl solutions, Biochimica Biophysica Acta 1079, 253-262) suggested that under specific solution conditions and slow freezing times, samples of oxidized Chromatium vinosum (Cv) high-potential, iron-sulfur protein (HiPIP) form dimeric structures that exhibit characteristic spin-spin interaction in the EPR spectrum. In that study, it was also shown that two HiPIP molecules could approach each other along their Fe1-S4 axes to a distance of approximately 13-14 A, as required by an analysis of the spin-spin physics. This is made possible because of a flattened surface on one side of the molecule within which S4 may, depending on side-chain motions, interact with solvent (Carter, C.W., Jr., Kraut, J., Freer, S.T., Alden, R.A., Sieker, L.C., Adman, E.T., Jensen, L.H. (1972) A comparison of Fe4S4 clusters in high potential iron protein and in ferredoxin, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 69, 3527-3529). Here we describe a computer generated, hypothetical model of this proposed dimeric structure which suggests an energetically favorable interaction between two Cv HiPIP molecules and could account for the experimental observations. Two Cv HiPIP molecules brought together along their Fe1-S4 axes and maintained at a center-to-center distance of 14 A can be rotated with respect to each other so as to create complementary interactions between two glutamine residues, two phenylalanine residues, and two leucine residues, and an energetically unfavorable interaction between two arginine residues. Energy minimization calculations using the program XPLOR indicate that this arrangement may provide an overall energetically favorable interaction between the two HiPIP molecules that is strengthened by site-specific binding of Na and Cl ions.