Binge drinking is an increasingly important topic in alcohol research, but the field lacks empirical cohesion and definitional precision. The present review summarizes findings and viewpoints from the scientific binge-drinking literature. Epidemiological studies quantify the seriousness of alcohol-related problems arising from binge drinking, with a growing incidence reported in college-age men over the last 2 years. Experimental studies have found neurocognitive deficits for frontal lobe processing and working memory operations in binge-drinking compared with nonbinge alcohol drinkers. The findings are organized with the goals of providing a useful binge-drinking definition in the context of the empirical results. Theoretical implications are discussed on how binge drinking may alter neurophysiological and neurocognitive function.