The flavivirus dengue and the arenavirus Junin are both associated with a hemorrhagic shock syndrome in man. We have demonstrated the replication of these viruses in vitro in both rabbit and human endothelial cells by viral titers and immunofluorescent antibody studies. Rabbit endothelium established in continuous culture was derived from vena cava, while human cells in primary culture were derived from umbilical veins. In rabbit endothelium, dengue-2 virus passaged through monkey kidney monolayer cells (LLC-MK2) or human lymphoblastoid cells (raji) produced significantly more virus than the seed obtained from suckling mouse brain (MB). Inoculation of actively dividing, subconfluent human endothelial cells with the LLC-MK2 degue virus produced higher viral titers than inoculation of confluent cells. The appearance of Junin virus was delayed beyond that of dengue virus in rabbit endothelial cells although equivalent titers of virus were produced. In human cells, Junin virus was less productive than dengue virus and produced characteristic cycles of virus release. This is the first direct evidence for replication of human hemorrhagic fever viruses in endothelial cells.