A recombinant antibody-lymphotoxin-alpha fusion protein induced an adaptive immune response protecting mice from melanoma. Importantly, this fusion protein elicited the formation of a lymphoid-like tissue in the tumor microenvironment containing L-selectin+ T cells and MHC class II+ antigen-presenting cells, as well as B and T cell aggregates. Furthermore, PNAd+/TCA4+ high endothelial venules were observed within the tumor, suggesting entry channels for naive T cell infiltrates. Over the course of therapy, a marked clonal expansion of certain TCR specificities occurred among tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes that displayed reactivity against melanoma cells and the TRP-2(180-188) peptide. Consequently, naive T cells may have been recruited to as well as primed and expanded in the lymphoid-like tissue induced by the lymphotoxin-alpha fusion protein at the tumor site.